Table of Contents
About Class 10 Science Chapter 2 - Acids bases and salts
Acids bases and salts is the 2st chapter of class 10th science syllabus and it is little bit harder as well as lengthy chapter as compared to other chapters of chemistry class 10th science syllabus. Acids have a sour taste and change the colour of blue litmus to red, while bases have a bitter taste and change the colour of red litmus to blue. In this segment, we'll learn about acid and base reactions, how acids and bases balance out each other's effects, and various other topics that we encounter in our daily lives. You can learn about the chemical properties of acids and bases, how acids and bases react with metals, how metal carbonates and metal hydrogen carbonates react with acids, how acids and bases react with each other, how metallic oxides react with acids, and how a non-metallic oxide reacts with a base, all of which are illustrated with appropriate illustrations and chemical reactions.
Note - To Attempt test scroll down to this page
|DIFFICULTY LEVEL||Moderate to hard
|EASIEST TOPIC||Concept of pH scale
|HARDEST TOPIC||Preparation and uses of Sodium Hydroxide, Bleaching powder, Baking soda, Washing soda and Plaster of Paris
|WEIGHTAGE||5 marks as per latest sample paper
NOTE- it may vary between 5-8
|TYPE OF QUESTIONS ASKED
||2 questions of 1 marks
1 question of 3 marks
Notes - This date is as per latest sample paper of 2023
|NUMBER OF QUESTIONS IN EXAM
||Approx 3-5 questions every year|
|IMPORTANCE OF CHAPTER
||Will help in understanding Acids bases and salts|
|HANDWRITTEN NOTES OF THIS CHAPTER
||Class 10 science handwritten notes pdf download
|IMPORTANT TOPIC FOR EXAM
||Basic definition, Preparation and uses of compounds given|
REVISION NOTES OF ACIDS BASES AND SALTS
|IMPORTANT DEFINATIONS OF CHAPTER 2|
|Acids: Substances which turn blue litmus solution red are called acids. Acids are sour in taste
|Bases: Substances which change red litmus solution blue are called bases. They are bitter in taste.
|Mineral Acids: Acids which are obtained from minerals like sulphates, nitrates, chlorides etc. are called mineral acids, e.g., H2SO4( Sulphuric acid), HNO3(Nitric acid) and HCl(Hydrochloric acid).
|Organic Acids: Acids which are obtained from plants and animals are called organic acids. e.g. citric acid, ascorbic acid, tartaric acid, lactic acid, acetic acid.
|Hydronium Ions(H3O+): They are formed by reaction of H+ (from acid) and H2O. It is because H+ is unstable.
|Strong Acids: Acids which dissociate into ions completely are called strong acids. E.g. H2SO4, HCl
|Weak Acids: Acids which do not dissociate into ions completely are called weak acids E.g. Citric acid, acetic acid.
|pH scale: A scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration in a solution. The pH of a solution is defined as the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion concentration in moles per liter.
pH =-log [H+] pH =-log [H3O+] where [H+] or [H3O+] represents concentrations of hydrogen ions in solution.
|Indicators - Indicators are substances which indicate the acidic or basic nature of the solution by their colour change.
Universal Indicator: A universal indicator is a mixture of indicators which shows a gradual but well-marked series of colour changes over a very wide range of change in concentration of H+ ion.
|Chemical properties of acids
|Chemical properties of Bases
||Chemical name/ Chemical formula
||Sodium carbonate decahydrate
of borax, caustic soda, softening of hard water
|NaCl+NH3+CO2+H2Oà NaHCO3 +NH4Cl
as antacid, ingredient of baking powder
|By the action of chlorine on dry
slaked lime Ca(OH)2+Cl2CaOCl2+H2O
||Bleaching clothes, used as oxidizing agent, disinfecting water, manufacture of chloroform
|Plaster of Paris
||calcium sulphate hemihydrate
|CaSO4.2H2O → CaSO4.1/2H2O + 3/2H2O
||Plastering fractured bones,
making toys, decorative materials, statues
|EQUATIONS OF ACIDS,BASES AND SALTS
|Acid + Metal à Salt
+ Hydrogen gas
|Base+ Metal àSalt + Hydrogen gas
|Base + Acid ------> Salt + Water
|Acids give hydronium
ions in water
|Bases generate OH- ions in water
|On heating, baking soda liberates CO2
|On mixing plaster of Paris
with water, gypsum is obtained
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- This is a 25 min test. Each question is of 50 second .
- You need to select 1 options out of 4. you can't leave the test in between once it is started.
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- Each question is of 20 points.
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Acid,Bases and Salt TEST
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